WORKPLACE NURSES, L.L.C.
LPN INTRAVENOUS THERAPY COURSE
i.v. therapy – history
Origin of Intravenous Injection
1628 - Wm. Harvey - discovery of circulation of blood led to further experimentation.
1656 - Sr. Christopher Wren - used a quill
and bladder; injected opium into drops.
1662 – J.D. Major made first successful injection in man.
1665 - A dying animal was successfully transfused with the blood of another.
1667 - A Parisian 15 year old boy was
first successful human transfused with the blood of a lamb. Led to many problems
1687 – Edict of Church and Parliament “animal to man transfusions prohibited
in Europe” – 150 years lapsed.
II. Landmark in Development of IV Process
Dr. James Blandell, English O.B., proved animal blood was
unfit for man, only human blood is safe.
1900 – Dr. Karl Landsteiner proved not all human blood is alike.
1935 - Slow drip – continuous method
of transfusion was published by two English physicians
Pyogens introduced in the solutions were a problem.
1940 – A nurse was assigned as I.V. Therapist at Mass General Hospital, prerequisite
to perform venipuncture successfully.
NS – Used at first in early 1900’s – fluid and electrolyte knowledge
grew and today more than 200 commercially prepared IV fluids are available.
1965 - University of Penn- nutrient given IV to dogs – research led to today’s total parenteral nutrition. (Dr.
III. Early Modern Equipment
Metal needle was used prior to World War II.
1945 – Development of plastic catheter due to frequency of infiltrations.
Glass container used first individually packed/prepared by
hospital pharmacy – later by major company as enclosed unit.
Plastic containers introduced in 1970’s.
IV. Current Events
80% of hospitalized patients receive IV Therapy.
Large percentage of medications are administered by IV
IV Therapy becoming more widely used extended care facilities
and in home care situations.
More widespread use of long-term, central venous access.
IV Therapy has become a sub-specialty in nursing.
National Intravenous Therapy Association. (N.I.T.A.) established
standards of practice in 1985
Development of the IV Nurse Specialist